Generic drug of the therapeutic class: Infectiology - Parasitology
Active ingredients: Tipranavir
laboratory: Boehringer Ingelheim Int
Box of 1 Bottle (+ syringe for oral administration) of 95 ml
APTIVUS 100 mg / ml oral solution, co-administered with low dose ritonavir, is indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents in children 2 to 12 years of age. pretreated with multi-resistant viruses to protease inhibitors. APTIVUS should be used only in the combination of antiretroviral therapy in patients who have no other therapeutic alternative (see sections Warnings and Precautions and Pharmacodynamic Properties ).
This indication is based on the results of a phase II study evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of APTIVUS oral solution in children, mainly pretreated, aged 2 to 12 years (see section 5.1). ).
When initiating APTIVUS, co-administered with low-dose ritonavir, each patient's treatment history and analysis of mutant patterns associated with different antiretrovirals should be carefully evaluated. Genotypic and phenotypic resistance tests (where available) and therapeutic history should guide the use of APTIVUS. When initiating therapy, combinations of mutations that may have a negative impact on virologic response to APTIVUS therapy, co-administered with low dose ritonavir, should be considered (see section 5.1 ).
Dosage APTIVUS 100 mg / mL oral solution Box of 1 vial (+ syringe for oral administration) of 95 ml
APTIVUS should always be administered with low dose ritonavir as a pharmacokinetic booster and in combination with other antiretroviral drugs. The Summary of Product Characteristics of ritonavir should therefore be consulted prior to initiation of APTIVUS therapy (particularly with respect to contraindications, warnings and adverse reactions).
APTIVUS should be prescribed by physicians experienced in the management of HIV-1 infection.
APTIVUS with ritonavir should not be used in antiretroviral-naive patients.
Patients should be informed of the need to take APTIVUS and ritonavir daily according to the prescription. If a dose has been missed for more than 5 hours in relation to the scheduled time, the patient should wait and then take the next dose of tipranavir and ritonavir at the usual time of day.
If a dose has been missed for less than 5 hours from the scheduled time, the patient should take the missed dose immediately and then take the next dose of tipranavir and ritonavir at the usual time of day.
The recommended dosage for children (aged 2 to 12 years) is 375 mg / m 2 APTIVUS co-administered with 150 mg / m 2 ritonavir twice daily. Pediatric dosages should not exceed 500 mg / 200 mg.
Dose of APTIVUS / ritonavir (375 mg / m 2 of APTIVUS + 150 mg / m 2 of ritonavir)
(m 2 )
0.37 - 0.42
0.43 - 0.47
0.48 - 0.52
0.53 - 0.58
0.59 - 0.63
0.64 - 0.68
0.69 - 0.74
0.75 - 0.79
0.80 - 0.84
0.85 - 0.90
0.91 - 0.95
0.96 - 1.00
1.01 - 1.06
1.07 - 1.11
1.12 - 1.16
1.17 - 1.22
1.23 - 1.27
1.28 - 1.32
Ritonavir dosages less than 150 mg / m 2 twice daily should not be used as they may alter the efficacy profile of the combination.
The safety and efficacy of APTIVUS in children under 2 years of age have not been established. No data available.
APTIVUS is available as soft capsules for adults and adolescents over the age of 12 (please refer to the corresponding SPC for details). Patients treated with APTIVUS and arriving at the age of 12 years should switch to capsule form (see sections Warnings and Precautions and Pharmacodynamic Properties ).
Tipranavir is metabolised by the liver. Hepatic impairment may result in increased exposure to tipranavir and a worsening of its safety profile. Therefore, APTIVUS should be used with caution, and with increased monitoring, in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A). APTIVUS is contraindicated in patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B or C) (see sections Contraindications, Warnings and Precautions, and Pharmacokinetic Properties ).
No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with renal impairment (see Warnings and Precautions and Pharmacokinetic Properties sections).
APTIVUS oral solution, co-administered with low dose ritonavir, should be administered in the presence of food (see section 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties ).
Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients.
Patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B or C).
Concomitant use of rifampicin and APTIVUS with low dose ritonavir is contraindicated (see section 4.5 ).
Herbal preparations containing St. John's wort ( Hypericum perforatum ) should not be used during treatment with APTIVUS as they may reduce plasma concentrations and clinical efficacy of tipranavir (see section 4.5). interactions ).
Co-administration of APTIVUS, with low-dose ritonavir, and active substances whose clearance is highly dependent on CYP3A, for which an increase in plasma concentrations may lead to serious and / or potentially prognostic adverse effects vital, is contraindicated. These active substances include antiarrhythmics (amiodarone, bepridil, quinidine), antihistamines (astemizole, terfenadine), rye ergot derivatives (dihydroergotamine, ergonovine, ergotamine, methylergonovine), stimulants of gastrointestinal motility (cisapride), neuroleptics (pimozide, sertindole), sedatives / hypnotics (oral midazolam and triazolam, for precautions in parenteral administration of midazolam see section Interactions with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction ) and inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (simvastatin and lovastatin). In addition, co-administration of APTIVUS with low-dose ritonavir, and drugs with a high CYP2D6-dependent clearance, such as some antiarrhythmics (flecainide, propafenone, and metoprolol used in heart failure), are contraindicated ( see section Interactions with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction ).
Aptivus side effects
APTIVUS, co-administered with low dose ritonavir, has been associated with significant hepatic toxicity. In the RESIST Phase III clinical trials, the frequency of transaminase elevations was significantly increased in the ritonavir-associated tipranavir arm relative to the comparator arm. Careful monitoring is therefore required in patients treated with APTIVUS, co-administered with low dose ritonavir (see Warnings and Precautions ).
Currently available data on the use of APTIVUS, co-administered with low dose ritonavir, in patients co-infected with hepatitis B or C are limited. APTIVUS should be used with caution in patients co-infected with hepatitis B or C. APTIVUS should only be used in this patient population if the expected benefit outweighs the potential risk and if clinical and laboratory monitoring is increased. .
Tipranavir (soft capsules), co-administered with low-dose ritonavir, was evaluated in combination with other antiretrovirals in a total of 6308 HIV-infected adult patients in clinical studies, including compassionate studies. Of these patients, 5, 219 received the 500 mg / 200 mg dose twice daily. In clinical trials, 909 adults, including 541 in the pivotal phase 3 trials RESIST-1 and RESIST-2, were treated with the 500 mg / 200 mg dose twice daily for at least 48 weeks.
Clinically significant adverse events at any grade (Grade 1-4) observed in adult patients receiving 500 mg tipranavir with 200 mg ritonavir (n = 1397) in all clinical trials Phases II and III are listed below by organ class and frequency according to the following categories:
Very common (> 1/10), common (≥1 / 100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1 / 1000 to <1/100), rare (≥1 / 10, 000 to <1/1000) )
Hematological and lymphatic system disorders:
Uncommon: neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia.
Immune system disorders:
Uncommon: hypersensitivity reaction
Metabolism and nutrition disorders:
Frequent: hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia
Uncommon: anorexia, decreased appetite, weight loss, hyperamylasemia, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hyperglycaemia
Rare: dehydration, slimming of the face,
Uncommon: insomnia, sleep disorders
Nervous system disorders:
Uncommon: intracranial hemorrhage *, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, somnolence
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders:
Very common: diarrhea, nausea
Common: vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain, abdominal distension, loose stools, dyspepsia.
Uncommon: gastroesophageal reflux, pancreatitis
Rare: increased lipase
Uncommon: hepatic enzyme elevation (ALT, ASAT), cytolytic hepatitis, abnormal liver function test (ALT, ASAT), toxic hepatitis
Rare: liver failure (including fatal outcome), hepatitis, hepatic steatosis
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders:
Uncommon: pruritus, lipohypertrophy, exanthema, lipoatrophy, acquired lipodystrophy
Musculoskeletal and systemic disorders:
Uncommon: myalgia, muscle cramp
Affection of the kidney and urinary tract:
Uncommon: renal failure
General disorders and administration site defects:
Uncommon: pyrexia, flu-like syndrome, malaise
* This adverse event has not been reported as an adverse event possibly related to treatment in the respective studies. The frequency estimate is based on the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval, calculated from all treated patients, in accordance with the European recommendation for SPC (3/1397, corresponds to the category "few frequent").
Description of some adverse effects
The following elements of clinical tolerance (hepatotoxicity, hyperlipidemia, bleeding, rash) were observed at a higher frequency in patients treated with ritonavir-treated tipranavir compared to patients treated in the comparator arm in RESIST clinical trials, or have been observed during the administration of tipranavir with ritonavir. The clinical significance of these observations has not yet been fully explored.
Hepatotoxicity: After 48 weeks of follow-up, the frequency of ALT and / or ASAT grade 3 or 4 abnormalities was higher in patients treated with tipranavir plus auritonavir compared to patients treated in the comparator arm (10 % and 3.4%, respectively). Multivariate analyzes showed that baseline ALT or ASAT above DAIDS Grade 1 and co-infection with hepatitis B or C were risk factors for these elevations. Most patients were able to continue treatment with tipranavir with ritonavir.
Hyperlipidemia: Grade 3 or 4 triglyceride elevations occurred more frequently in the tipranavir arm of ritonavir compared to the comparator arm. At 48 weeks, these rates were 25.2% in patients treated with ritonavir-treated tipranavir and 15.6% in the comparator arm.
Bleeding: A tendency to a higher risk of bleeding has been observed in RESIST patients receiving tipranavir with ritonavir; the relative risk at 24 weeks was 1.98 (95% CI = 1.03, 3.80). At 48 weeks, the relative risk decreased to 1.27 (95% CI = 0.76, 2.12). There was no evidence of haemorrhagic events and no difference in coagulation parameters between treatment groups. Further evaluation is underway on the relevance of these data.
Fatal and nonfatal intracranial haemorrhage (HIC) has been reported in patients receiving tipranavir; many of these patients had medical histories or were receiving concurrently other treatments that may be causing or contributing to the HIC. However, in some cases, the role of tipranavir can not be ruled out. No hematologic abnormalities or coagulation parameters have been observed in patients treated with tipranavir or prior to HIC. Therefore, routine monitoring of coagulation parameters is not currently indicated in APTIVUS patients. An increased risk of HIC has already been observed in patients with advanced HIV-1 / AIDS infection, patients comparable to those treated with APTIVUS in these clinical trials.
Rash: An interaction study between tipranavir, co-administered with low dose ritonavir, and ethinyl estradiol / norethindrone conducted in women, showed a high frequency of non-serious rash. In RESIST clinical trials, the risk of rash was similar between ritonavir and comparator-treated tipranavir arms (16.3% versus 12.5%, respectively, see Warnings and Precautions ). No cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Lyell syndrome have been reported in the tipranavir clinical development program.
Frequencies of clinically pronounced (Grade 3 or 4) laboratory abnormalities reported in at least 2% of patients in ritonavir-treated tipranavir arms in Phase III (RESIST-1 and RESIST-2) clinical trials after 48 weeks corresponded to an increase in ASAT (6.1%), ALT (9.7%), amylase (6.0%), cholesterol (4.2%) and triglycerides (24.9%)., and a decrease in the number of white blood cells (5.7%).
Combination antiretroviral therapy, such as protease inhibitor-containing therapies, is associated in some patients with redistribution of body fat, including loss of peripheral subcutaneous adipose tissue, increased intra-fat mass abdominal, breast hypertrophy, and retro-cervical fat accumulation (buffalo hump). Protease inhibitors are also associated with metabolic abnormalities such as hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia.
Increases in CPK, myalgia, myositis and, rarely, rhabdomyolysis have been reported with protease inhibitors, particularly when combined with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
In HIV-infected patients with severe immune deficiency at the time of initiation of antiretroviral combination therapy, an inflammatory reaction to asymptomatic or residual opportunistic infections may occur (see Warnings and Precautions section). ). Reactivation of herpes and shingles viruses was observed during the RESIST trials.
Cases of osteonecrosis have been reported, particularly in patients with known risk factors, advanced HIV-related disease, or combination therapy with long-term antiretrovirals. Their frequency of occurrence is not known (see section Warnings and Precautions ).
In an open-label, open-label clinical trial of tipranavir plus ritonavir (Study 1182.14), 62 children under 12 received APTIVUS oral solution. In general, adverse effects were similar to those seen in adults, with the exception of vomiting, rash, and pyrexia, which were reported more frequently in children than in adults. The most common moderate or severe adverse events reported in the 48-week analyzes are presented below.
Moderate or severe adverse events reported most frequently in pediatric patients aged 2 to <12 years (reported in at least 2 children, study 1182.14, 48-week analyzes, Full Analysis Set).
Total number of patients treated (N)
Events [N (%)]
3 (4, 8)
3 (4, 8)
Abdominal pain 1
3 (4, 8)
Increase in gamma-glutamyltransferase
Increase in ALT
2 (3, 2)
2 (3, 2)
1 Includes abdominal pain (N = 1), dysphagia (N = 1) and epigastric discomfort (N = 1).
2 The term rash includes one or more of the following preferred terms: rash, drug rash, macular rash, papular rash, erythema, maculopapular rash, pruritic rash, and hives.