The first perceived symptom is the increase in volume of a testicle, sometimes manifesting itself in a hard mass located in the stock exchanges.
In addition to this, the man may perceive discomfort or pain of the testicle concerned. He must then consult a doctor. It is necessary to make the diagnosis of these abnormal symptoms and not to miss a possible cancer of the testicle.
Other times, the symptoms appear more brutally. For example, by a very sharp pain simulating a torsion of a testicle. This may be due to an injury that will destroy the testicle (necrosis following a stop in the blood circulation), thrombosis or hemorrhage in the tumor.
Finally, if these symptoms have gone unnoticed, testicular cancer may be manifested by a decline in fitness, with weight loss and fatigue.
Sometimes, on the occasion of the assessment of infertility, it is possible to discover a small cancerous tumor.
Another symptom: in case of an increase in testicular volume, you must request an ultrasound as soon as possible. This allows the diagnosis of a tumor after having formally eliminated the diagnosis of epididymitis or orchitis (diseases whose evolution and treatment are incommensurate with testicular cancer).
Blood tests are also performed if such symptoms occur. The doctor asks for the determination of serum markers of cancer, in particular AFP (alpha feto-protein) and / or beta-HCG (chorionic gonadotropin hormone) and / or LDH (lacto-dehydrogenase). These substances are secreted by cancerous tumors of the testis. Their dosage makes it possible to make the diagnosis. The figures serve as a reference for monitoring these cancers.
In order to search for distant metastases, an extension assessment of the tumor is necessary. It includes: chest x-ray, abdominopelvic ultrasound and thoracoabdominal CT scan.