Diseases

Type 1 diabetes: the causes

What are the causes of type 1 diabetes?

The natural history that leads to type 1 diabetes seems to occur in several stages:

  • the beta cells of the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed by the body's defense system (the immune system). The secretory functions of insulin then gradually and discreetly alter, the destruction process usually evolving over several years.
  • the first symptoms of the disease appear several years later, when more than 80% of the pancreatic beta cells were destroyed
  • Hyperglycemia due to insulin deficiency plays an aggravating role: it depletes the remaining ß cells, resulting in a decrease in the peripheral sensitivity to the action of insulin, and the few remaining cells would disappear more or less completely.

The appearance of this autoimmune reaction would be linked to the association:

  • a genetic predisposition (although in more than 80% of cases there is no family history of type 1 diabetes),

How is a genetic disease transmitted?

There are more than 6, 000 listed genetic diseases. What is a genetic disease and how can it be transmitted?


  • environmental factors, such as early exposure in life to certain viruses (rubella, measles, CMV, EBV, varicella zoster ...) or food (cow's milk protein), which could modulate the autoimmune reaction.

Although no single gene can explain the disease alone, the most important of them discovered to date is localized in the HLA system, involved in immune tolerance to "self" cells.

Type 1 diabetes is often associated with other autoimmune diseases (Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, Addison's disease, Biermer's disease, vitiligo, celiac disease, etc.).

These environmental factors should not be confused with the precipitating factors of the diagnosis (influenza, stress, etc.), which can at most advance (of a few days or weeks) the onset of diabetes by increasing the insulin requirements, that the pancreas is no longer able to manufacture. Moreover, to date, no study has been able to establish that vaccinations increased the risk of diabetes.

Diabetes quiz

Sugar, carbohydrates, insulin, genetic factor, diet ... What do you really know about diabetes? Take our quiz!

You want to react, to give your testimony or to ask a question? Appointment in our FORUMS Diabetes or A doctor answers you!

To read :

> Diabetes in women: what peculiarities?
> Glycemic index: what is it?
> Diabetes and travel: what you need to know

Popular Posts

Category Diseases, Next Article

Pulmonary infection (pneumonia): the causes - Diseases
Diseases

Pulmonary infection (pneumonia): the causes

The causes of a lung infection are microbial agents: bacteria, parasites and fungi. Bacteria Among the various bacteria involved, there is pneumococcus that can cause pneumonia and Koch bacillus that causes pulmonary tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is also a very formidable bacteria. Another bacterium is Legionella, which grows in relatively warm aquatic environments (40-60 ° C) and can affect the lungs and cause severe infection.
Read More
Brain tumor: the exams - Diseases
Diseases

Brain tumor: the exams

The first test to be done is the complete neurological clinical examination with a general practitioner or neurologist. The evaluation, in consultation, of all the neurological functions will make it possible to detect minimal symptoms not remarkable, and to direct the patient towards the necessary examinations
Read More
Graves' disease: evolution of the disease and complications - Diseases
Diseases

Graves' disease: evolution of the disease and complications

In mild forms of Graves' disease, it can happen that the disease spontaneously regresses without special treatment. In the long term, the risk of relapse is important in the absence of appropriate treatment. In severe forms of Graves' disease, a "natural" and spontaneous regression of the disease is unlikely
Read More
Venous thrombosis - Diseases
Diseases

Venous thrombosis

Venous thrombosis, also known as phlebitis, refers to the formation of a clot in a vein. It can be located in different places, most often in the lower limbs, but also in the upper limbs or the abdomen. There are two types of venous thrombosis: > Superficial vein thromboses. They are also called paraphlébites and are benign because they touch superficial veins, visible under the skin.
Read More