Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) does not prevent you from playing sports. On the contrary, it is recommended, but needs to be framed so that everything goes as well as possible.
Type 1 diabetes is linked to a deficiency of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, to store sugar in the cells of the body: when insulin is missing, the sugar is no longer stored and its concentration increases in the blood: it is hyperglycemia .
What dose of insulin before exercise before a sport?
In the particular case of type 1 diabetes, just before starting a physical activity, it will be necessary to adjust the amount of insulin injected, as well as the amount and type of diet depending on the sport practiced.
Indeed, it must be known that physical exercise will always necessarily be more intense than that practiced by a type 2 diabetic, if only for reasons of age and physical condition (type 1 diabetes occurs in patients with young people).
It will be necessary to reduce according to the planned sport, from 10 to 50% the dose of insulin.
Some marathoners reduce it to 75%. Because muscles using glucose intensively, the amount of insulin injected (less than usual) will suffice for exercise.
- To read: Type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes, IDDM)
Depending on the blood glucose
Systematically and before starting any physical activity, when you have type 1 diabetes, you must measure and know the blood sugar level and follow the following instructions:
> If you have high blood sugar
Before starting your activity, you will need to lower this rate by giving you an insulin injection.
Warning: if your blood sugar is higher than 2.5 g / l, it is totally contraindicated to make a physical effort, because you expose yourself to hyperglycemia and the resulting production of acetone. In this case, it is better to postpone your exercise and / or to make an additional injection of insulin.
> If you have low blood glucose
There is no contraindication to physical exertion. Just be sure to re-sweeten with sucrose or glucose which is still a faster sugar, or with a sugary drink.
> If the blood glucose is normal
Prevent the occurrence of hypoglycemia caused by physical activity, by absorbing dried fruits, biscuits or chocolate bars, before starting your sport. If despite all the precautions taken, you find yourself in a situation of hypoglycemia, make sure to stop your activity and feed yourself with a drink or a sweet food. Take care to remeasure your blood sugar after exercise and depending on the result, eat a quick piece of sugar.
> Measure your blood sugar well
Make it a habit to measure your blood glucose away from physical exertion, because hypoglycaemia can occur several hours after exercise, especially the night after exercise.
For people with an insulin pump, it is of course necessary to modulate and adjust the doses of insulin injected.
It should be noted that patient associations (and in particular the Association of Young Diabetics - AJD and their local branches) offer practical workshops to learn, understand and master insulin treatment during a sports activity. Sports stays of several days are also organized for young patients and their families, supervised by health professionals.You want to react, to give your testimony or to ask a question? Appointment in our FORUMS Diabetes or A doctor answers you!
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> The glycemic index: what is it?